ancient site
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Ancient Settlements on the Bodrum Peninsula
Besides the ancient city of Halicarnassos there are 12 other ancient settlements on the Bodrum peninsula.

These cities are Pedasa, Telmossos (Gurece), Termera and the Castle of Aspat, Musgebi (Ortakent), the old and new Myndos, Uranion, Madnasa, Sibda, New Karyanda, Syangela, Theangela, Kindye, Old Karyanda and Bargylia.

A large proportion of these are Leleg settlements. During the reign of the Halicarnassos King Mausolus II the citizens of six of these cities were forced to migrate to Halicarnassos while those of Myndos and Syangela were moved to other places and the cities rebuilt in the Hellenistic style.

Thus, instead of the having a scattered and weak population, Halicarnassos was made stronger and prosperous. Barring the ancient city of Bargylia, most of what remains from these settlements are parts of walls and towers.

The settlements are generally on hills and mountains. A visit to one or all is recommended to those interested in Archaeology and for those who want to discover nature by walking.
is four kilometres away as the crow flies, on the top of a hill covered with trees. As there is no road and you can only get there on foot. For those who are interested this trip will give them a pleasant hike and great satisfaction. The ruins can be seen on the top of the hill, within a circle of 150 metres in diameter. The remains are generally of the walls and the inner castle. To the south and south east of this area you can see tombs in the style of the Lelegs.

Telmossos is on the Bodrum Turgutreis road, three kilometres past Ortakent. The site is in the village of Gurece, which is two kilometres before the turn for Gumusluk, with the hill where the remains are to be found to the north of the main road. You can see remains of the Hellenistic period, mainly the towers of the city’s walls. The historian Herodotus say that there was the Temple of Apollo here and that is was famed for its oracles. However, no traces of the temple have survived.

Musgebi in Ortakent was also a Leleg settlement. During the excavations conducted in the necropolis of this city, pottery from the 15th and 13th centuries BC from Mycea was unearthed.

The Aspat Kalesi (Castle of Aspat) is on the top of the conical hill facing Aspat Cove in Akyarlar. The ancient settlement of Termera is two kilometres further along on Asarlik Hill, one kilometre from the village of Mandra. You can only walk there. However, you can get to Mandra by car by following the road from the village of Gurece where Telmossos is located.

The city of Termara is like the other Leleg cities, with very few traces or ruins that have survived to our time. The inner castle on the top of the hill is completely destroyed, though some part of the lower wall is standing.

Old Myndos was also a Leleg city. Its ruins are located on Bozdag Hill, one kilometre inland from Kadikalesi. There is no road to the hill and walking up takes about an hour. On top you will the ruins of the city walls and the remains of a square building. The view from the top, which encompasses the whole of modern Gumusluk and a large part of the Bodrum peninsula, is extremely impressive. The people of Old Myndos were relocated to New Myndos during the rule of Mausolus II.
anfora old caria
Yeni Myndos (New Myndos) is intertwined with the village of Gumusluk. The city was not much added to after the reign of Mausolus II and was almost forgotten in the Roman period. This is another reason why little remains from the city, as is the case with some other ancient cities on the Bodrum peninsula.
The walls that surrounded the city can be also seen from the islet Gumusluk. If from Turgutreis you follow the road to Gumusluk and drive for one kilometre, at the side of the road you can see tombs hewn into the rock.

LELEG is Three kilometres to the south west of Yalikavak, on the two hills above the village of Geris, there are the ruins of the Leleg settlement that was believed to be Uranion. On the top of the hill near the shore there is the ruins of a mausoleum, walls and towers.

On one of the hills that face Golturkbuku is Madnasa (Kokpinar Tepesi) and the other hill Sibda/Side (Karadag). In both cities there are the remains of walls and towers from the acropolis and some ceramic and pottery pieces. In order to get to Sibda you have to turn off the road to Yukari Golkoy and go to the village of Belen by car. By walking from Belen for 40 minutes you get to the ruins of a church and a castle. Another 40 minutes walk gets you to Karadag where the ruins of Sibda are to be found. While the ruins are not very spectacular the view that gives you a panorama of the Bodrum peninsula are.

In the Gulf of Gokova region, on the hill above the Alazeytin district of the village of Yaliciftlik, there are the ruins of the ancient city of Syangela. You get to the ruins after a 20 minute walk through olive trees from the end of Alazeytin. All that remains from the ancient city are ruins of houses and other buildings. From the hilltop you can see the Gulf of Gokova and Orak Island.

The city of Theangela, where Mausolus II relocated the people of Syangela, is on a hill one kilometre from the village of Pinarbelen, along the Mumcular Bodrum road. The path leading from the village to the hill is very steep and the walk takes some time. It is recommended to take a guide from the village. However, the ruins at the top are worth the effort. If you feel energetic, if it is not too hot and you have the time, this trip of exploration might be interesting.
Kndye: The ancient site is near the Milas Bodrum road, past the turn for Gulluk on the hillside between the villages of Kemikler and Sigirtmac. Little remains of the ancient city of Kndye apart from rough stone walls.

If you head towards the Gulf of Gulluk and get to the edge of the Bodrum Peninsula and the Cove of Varvil you will find the ancient city of Bargylia. The site where there are remains is four kilometres off the main road. You can get there by four wheel drive, though it is much easier to get here by boat from Gulluk. At the site of the ancient city, which had its heyday during the Hellenistic and Roman eras, you can see the columns, the walls of a Roman temple, an altar with reliefs, a small part of a theatre, the ruined foundations of a stoa, fragments of a Roman era aqueduct, city walls and the town’s cemetery.

There is talk about some ruins from the ancient city of Karyanda on Salih Island opposite Guvercinlik. It is claimed that Yeni Karyanda (New One) was located on the site of the current settlement of Golturkbuku. However, there are no remains to prove that these were the locations of these ancient cities.
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